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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 190-205

Diagnosis and management of central nervous system embryonal tumors in the molecular era: A contemporary review

1 Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vani Santosh
Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru- 560029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJNO.IJNO_427_21

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Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors exhibit significant biological heterogeneity and pose challenges in diagnosis and clinical management. Among these, medulloblastoma is the most common and extensively studied tumor. Advances in understanding the molecular alterations of these tumors, using genomic and epigenomic platforms, have led to refinement in their diagnosis, classification, and guiding clinical management. This review discusses the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings of CNS embryonal tumors and details their clinical presentation, histopathological, and molecular features. Based on the recent discoveries, the current state of management of medulloblastoma and other embryonal tumors, including the recent biomarker-based clinical trials, is reviewed.

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